Solar panels are also known as photovoltaic module or photovoltaic panel or solar module in which the photovoltaic cells are assembled in a panel. Each solar panel is rated by its dc output power and typically ranges from 10 to 250 watts. Solar panel may be connected serially or parallely as required by the customers for power consumption. Solar panel can be fitted in various methods like trackers, fixed racks, ground mounted and roof mounting and mostly in India roof mounting is widely used. There are 2 types of solar panel available mono-crystalline or poly-crystalline .monocrystiline is a material in whichthe structure of the entire silicon is unbroken to the edge with no grain boundaries whereas polycrystalline are composed of many crystals of varying size or orientation. Monocrystiline is more efficient compared to Polycrystalline but in price wise monocrystiline panel is little higher than polycrystalline panel but when we compare price and efficiency of both panels they are found to be almost same.
Most mono crystalline are silicon wafer which cut in thin slices from most pure silicon cylinder and micro circuits are fabricated on it single crystal silicon. Advantage of mono crystalline - is most efficient and most dependable way to produce electricity from the sun. Comparing to polycrystalline mono is 20 to 30% more efficient, because each module is made from a single silicon crystal and is more efficient than polycrystalline. The silicon crystal used in single cells must be requires a much higher purity level. Mono-crystalline solar panels are first generation solar technology and have long time durability. It produces more electricity per square meter. In Kerala climate 1000 W Solar panels can create between 4.5 Kwh to 5 Kwh electricity per day.
The cost of production of polycrystalline is less than that of mono-crystalline, is very commonly used. Polycrystalline cells are constructed by the method of molten silicon is poured into a cast instead of being made into a single crystal. This material can be synthesized easily by allowing liquid silicon to cool using a seed crystal of the desired crystal structure. High temperature chemical vapor deposition (CVD), is the other methods for crystallizing amorphous silicon to form poly silicon. In this process, silicon pieces are melted in a ceramic crucible and then formed in a graphite mold to form a block of silicon. As the molten silicon is cooling a seed crystal of the desired crystal structure is created for formation. For this process only less silicon is required and thus manufacturing cost is reduced and that is why the efficiency is poor than Monocrystalline. Polycrystalline panels only have an efficiency of 70% to 80% compared with mono-crystalline solar panel.
These are most advanced flexible model solar panels. We can install it in any curved or plane surface where sunlight is available. Thin film solar panel is more efficient comparing Poly and mono crystalline cells but the main drawback is lifetime is only half time than Poly and mono Crystalline cells.
|Maximum power||Pmax||250WP (24V )||125WP (12V )||100WP (12V )||50WP(12V )|
|Voltage at Maximum power||VMP||31V||18.2V||17.4V||17.7V|
|Current at Maximum power||IMP||8.0A||6.9A||5.75A||2.83A|
|Open Circuit Current||VOC||37.5V||22.1V||21.4V||21.4V|
|Short Circuit Voltage||ISC||9.0A||7.9A||6.41A||3.28A|
|Tolerance||+ / - 5%||+ / - 5%||+ / - 5%||+ / - 5%|
|Maximum System Voltage||1000V||1000V||1000V||1000V|
|The Standard size||65.5 “x 39”||52.5" x 26"||52.5" x 26"||26" x 24"|
|Electrical Parameters at Standard Test Condition|
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